BrainFocus technologies and methods are based on our published work in international scientific outlets including Science, Nature and Current Biology.

Recent white paper:

Example review articles (selected from over 100 scientific articles):

Example white paper:

See below for full list of publications.

Torralbo, A., Kelley, T.A., Rees, G., & Lavie, N. (2016). Attention induced neural response trade-off in retinotopic cortex under load. Nature Scientific Reports 6, Article number 33041. doi:10.1038/srep33041

Gupta, R., Hur, Y-J. & Lavie, N. (2016). Distracted by Pleasure: Effects of Positive Versus Negative Valence on Emotional Capture Under Load. Emotion, 16(3), 328-337.

Forster, S., & Lavie N. (2015). Establishing the Attention-Distractibility trait. Psychological Science. doi: 10.1177/0956797615617761.

Molloy, K., Griffiths, T.D., Chait, M., & Lavie, N. (2015). Inattentional Deafness: Visual load leads to time-specific suppression of Auditory evoked responses. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(49), 16046-16054.

Raveh D. & Lavie, N. (2015). Load-induced inattentional deafness. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 77(2), 483-492, doi 10.3758/s13414-014-0776-2.

Hodsoll, S., Lavie, N. & Viding, E.(2014). Emotional attentional capture in children with conduct problems: the role of callous-unemotional traits. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, article 570, doi: 10.3389.

Konstantinou, N., Beal, E. King, J-R, & Lavie, N. (2014) Working memory load and distraction: dissociable effects of visual maintenance and cognitive control. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 76 (7), 1985-1997

Remington, A., Cartwright-Finch, U., & Lavie, N. (2014). I can see clearly now: the effects of age and perceptual load on inattentional blindness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8:229.

Stolte, M., Bahrami, B. & Lavie, N. (2014). High perceptual load leads to both reduced gain and broader orientation tuning. Journal of Vision 14(3):9, 1–10
Lavie, N., Beck, D. M. & Konstantinou, N. (2014). Blinded by the load: attention, awareness and the role of perceptual load. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 369: 20130205.

Swettenham, J., Remington, A., Murphy P., Feuerstein, M. Grim, K. & Lavie, N (2014). Seeing the unseen: Autism involves reduced susceptibility to inattentional blindness. Neuropsychology, advance online publication doi: 10.1037/neu0000042

Forster S., Robertson, D. J. Jennings, A., Asherson P. & Lavie N. (2014). Plugging the attention deficit: Perceptual load counters increased distraction in ADHD. Neuropsychology 28(1), 91–97.

Lavie, N. & Dalton, P. (2013). Load theory of attention and cognitive control. In S. Kastner & A. C. Nobre A. (Eds.). Handbook of Attention. Oxford University Press. Look inside

Thoma, V. & Lavie, N. (2013). Perceptual load effects on processing distractor faces indicate face-specific capacity limits. Visual Cognition, 21(8), 1053-1076.

Forster, S. & Lavie N. (2013). Distracted by your mind? Individual differences in distractibility predict mind wandering. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40(1), 251–260.

Cashdollar, N., Lavie, N. & Duzel E. (2013). Alleviating Memory Impairment through Distraction. Journal of Neuroscience 33(48), 19012-19022.

Konstantinou, N. & Lavie, N. (2013). Dissociable roles of different types of working memory load in visual detection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and performance, 39(4), 919–924.

Kelley, T. A., Rees, G. & Lavie, N. (2013). The impact of distractor congruency on stimulus processing in retinotopic visual cortex. NeuroImage, 81, 158-163.


Lavie, N. (2012). From the mother lode to load. From Perception to Consciousness: Searching with Anne Treisman. J. M. Wolfe and L. Robertson (Eds.). Oxford University Press. Look inside

Konstantinou, N., Bahrami, B., Rees, G. & Lavie, N. (2012). Visual Short-Term Memory Load Reduces Retinotopic Cortex Response to Contrast. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24(11), 2199-2210.

Carmel, D., Fairnie, J., & Lavie, N. (2012). Weight and see: loading working memory improves incidental identification of irrelevant faces. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 286.

Remington, A.M., Swettenham, J.G., & Lavie, N. (2012). Lightening the load: perceptual load impairs visual detection in typical adults but not in autism. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 2, 544-51.


Forster, S. & Lavie, N. (2011). Entirely irrelevant distractors can capture and captivate attention. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18(6), 1064-1070.

Mulckhuyse, M., Kelley, T. A., Theeuwes, J., Walsh V. & Lavie N. (2011). Enhanced visual perception with occipital TMS. European Journal of Neuroscience, 34 (8), 1320–1325.

Carmel, D. Thorne, J. Rees, G. & Lavie, N. (2011). Perceptual load alters visual excitability. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and performance, 37(5), 1350-1360.

Macdonald, J. & Lavie, N. (2011). Visual perceptual load induces inattentional deafness. Attention Perception & Psychophysics, 73(6), 1780-1789.

Hodsoll, S. Viding, E. Lavie, N. (2011). Attentional capture by irrelevant emotional distractor faces. Emotion 11(2), 346-353.


Carmel, D., Walsh, V., Lavie, N., Rees, G. (2010). Right parietal TMS shortens dominance durations in binocular rivalry. Curr Biol 20(18), R799-R800 doi:10.1016/j.cub.2010.07.036. [supplementary info]

Cashdollar, N., Lavie, N., Duzel, E. (2010). Reply to Lee and Baxter: Perceptual deficits cannot explain impaired configural-relational maintenance in bilateral hippocampal injury. P NATL ACAD SCI USA 107(6), E22-E22 doi:10.1073/pnas.0914927107.

Kelley, T. A., Lavie, N. (2010). Working Memory Load Modulates Distractor Competition in Primary Visual Cortex. Cereb Cortex 21(3), 659-665.

Lavie, N. (2010). Attention, Distraction and Cognitive Control under Load. CURR DIR PSYCHOL SCI 19(3), 143-148.

Lavie, N., Torralbo, A. (2010). Dilution: atheoretical burden or just load? A reply to Tsal and Benoni (2010). J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 36(6), 1657-1664.

Madrid, G. J., Lavie, N., Lavidor, M. (2010). Asymmetrical perceptual load in lateralised word processing. EUR J COGN PSYCHOL 22(7), 1066-1077.


Cashdollar,N., Malecki,U., Rugg-Gunn,F.J., Duncan,J.S., Lavie,N., Duzel,D. (2009). Hippocampus dependent and independent theta-networks of active maintenance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(48), 20493–20498.

Dalton,P., Lavie,N., Spence,C. (2009). The role of working memory in tactile selective attention. The Quaterly Journal Of Experimental Psychology 62(4), 635-644

Forster,S., Lavie, N. (2009). Harnessing the wandering mind: The role of perceptual load. Cognition 111(3), 345-355. ISSN: 0010-0277

Lavie,N., Lin,Z., Zokaei,N., Thoma,V. (2009). The role of perceptual load in object recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 21(1), 42-57. ISSN: 0096-1523

Malecki,U., Stallforth,S., Heipertz,D., Lavie,N., Duzel,E. (2009). Neural generators of sustained activity differ for stimulus-encoding and delay maintenance. European Journal of Neuroscience 30(5), 924-933.

Nasrallah,M., Carmel,D., Lavie,N. (2009). “Murder she wrote”:Enhanced sensitivity to negative word valence. Emotion 9(5), 609-618. ISSN: 1528-3542

Ro,T., Friggel,A., Lavie,N. (2009). Attentional biases for faces and body parts. Visual Cognition 71(4), 671-674. ISSN: 1350-6285

Ro,T., Friggel,A., Lavie,N. (2009). Musical expertise modulates the effects of visual perceptual load. Perception and Psychophysics 71(4), 671-674. ISSN: 0031-5117

Silvanto,J., Muggleton,N., Lavie,N., Walsh,V. (2009). The perceptual and functional consequences of parietal top-down modulation on the visual cortex.Cerebral Cortex . ISSN: 1047-3211

Taya,S., Adams,W.J., Graph,E.W., Lavie,N. (2009). The fate of task-irrelevant visual motion: Perceptual load versus feature-based attention. Journal of Vision.


Muggleton, N. Lamb, R., Walsh, V. & Lavie, N. (2008). Perceptual load modulates visual cortex excitability to magnetic stimulation. Journal of Neurophysiology,100(1), 516-519. .

Silvanto, J. Lavie, N. Walsh V. (2008). The perceptual and functional consequences of parietal top-down modulation on the visual cortex. Cerebral Cortex. Advanced online accesss ISSN: 1047-3211.

Bahrami,B., Carmel,D., Walsh,V., Rees,G., Lavie,N. (2008). Spatial attention can modulate unconscious orientation processing. Perception 37(10),1520-1528.

Macdonald,J.S.P, Lavie,N. (2008). Load Induced Blindness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 34(5),1078-1091. ISSN: 0096-1523.

Forster, S. & Lavie, N. (2008) Failures to Ignore Entirely Irrelevant Distractors: The Role of Load. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 14, 73-83.

Brand-D’Abrescia,M., Lavie,N. (2008). Task coordination between and within sensory modalities: Effects on distraction. Perception and Psychophysics 70(3), 508-515. ISSN: 0031-5117.

Bahrami, B. Carmel, D. Walsh, V. Rees, G. & Lavie, N. (2008). Unconscious orientation processing depends on perceptual load. Journal of Vision8(3), 1–10.

Carmel, D. V. Rees, G. & Lavie, N (2007). Perceptual load modulates conscious flicker perception. Journal of Vision, 7(14):14, 1-13.

Silvanto, J. Cowey A , Lavie, N. Walsh V. (2007). Making the blindsighted see. Neuropsychologia, 45 (14), 3346-3350.

Brand-D’Abrescia, M. & Lavie, N. (2007). Distractor effects during processing of words under load. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14 (6) 1153–1157.

Bahrami, B. Lavie, N. & Rees, G. (2007). Attentional load modulates responses of human primary visual cortex to invisible stimuli. Current Biology, 17(6), 509-513

Forster, S. & Lavie (2007). Attentional capture by entirely irrelevant distractors. Visual Cognition, 16, 200-214.

Ro, T., Friggel, A. and Lavie, N. (2007) Attentional biases for faces and body parts. Visual Cognition, 15(3), 322-348.

Forster, S. & Lavie, N. (2007). High perceptual load makes everybody equal: Eliminating individual differences in distractibility with load. Psychological Science, 18 (5), 377-382

Dalton, P. & Lavie, N. (2007). Overriding auditory attentional capture. Perception & Psychophysics, 69(2), 162-171.

Watkins,S., Dalton,P., Lavie,N., Rees,G. (2007). Brain mechanisms mediating auditory attentional capture in humans. Cerebral Cortex 17(7), 1694-1700.


Beck, D. Muggleton, N., Walsh, V. & Lavie N. (2006). Right parietal lobe plays a critical role in change blindness. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 712-717.

Carmel , D. Lavie, N. & Rees, G. (2006) Conscious awareness of flicker in humans involves frontal and parietal cortex. Current Biology 16(9), 907-911.

Cartwright-Finch, U. and Lavie N. (2006). The role of perceptual load in Inattentional Blindness. Cognition, 102(3), 321-340

Dalton , P. & Lavie, N. (2006) Temporal Attentional Capture: Effects of irrelevant singletons on rapid serial visual search. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13 (5), 881-885

Lavie, N. (2006). The role of perceptual load in visual awareness. Brain Research, 1080(1), 91-100.

Lavie N. (2006). Attention and consciousness. The Blackwell companion to consciousness. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK. Look inside

Lavie, N. & De Fockert, J. (2006) Frontal control of attentional Capture in visual search. Visual Cognition, 14 863-876.

Silvanto, J., Lavie, N. & Walsh, V. (2006) Stimulation of the human frontal eye fields modulates sensitivity of extrastriate visual cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 96(2), 941-945.


Beck, D. & Lavie, N. (2005). Look here but ignore what you see: effects of distractors at fixation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance , 31, 592-607.

Silvanto, J. Cowy, A., Lavie, N. & Walsh, V. (2005). Striate cortex (V1) activity gates awareness of motion. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 143-144.

Silvanto, J. Lavie, N. & Walsh, V. (2005) Double dissociation of V1 and V5 activity in visual awareness. Cerebral Cortex, 15(11), 1736-1741(6)

Lavie, N. (2005) Distracted and confused?: selective attention under load. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 75-82

Lavie, N. & Defockert, J. W. (2005) The role of working memory in attentional capture. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 12, 669-674.


Jenkins, R., Lavie, N. & Driver, J. S. (2004). Recognition Memory for Distractor Faces Depends on Attentional Load at Exposure. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 314-320.

Dalton , P. & Lavie, N. (2004). Auditory attentional capture: Effects of singleton sounds. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 30, 180-193.

De Fockert J. W., Rees, G., Frith, C. D. & Lavie, N. (2004). Neural correlates of attentional capture in visual search. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 751-759.

Lavie, N., Hirst, A., De Fockert, J. W. & Viding, E. (2004) Load theory of selective attention and cognitive control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133, 339-354.


Lavie, N. & DeFockert J. W. (2003). Contrasting effects of sensory limits and capacity limits in visual selective attention. Perception & Psychophysics, 65, 202-212.

Lavie, N., Ro, T. & Russell, C. (2003). The role of perceptual load in processing distractor faces. Psychological Science, 14, 510-515.

Jenkins, R., Lavie, N. & Driver, J. S. (2003). Ignoring famous faces: category specific dilution of distractor interference Perception & Psychophysics,65, 298-309.


Yardley, L. Papo, D., Bronstein, A., Gresty, M., Gardner, M., Lavie N. & Luxon, L. (2002). Attentional demands of continuously monitoring orientation using vestibular information. Neuropsychologia, 40, 373-383.


Lavie, N. (2001). The role of capacity limits in selective attention: Behavioural evidence and implications for neural activity. J. Braun & C. Koch (Eds.).Visual Attention and Cortical Circuits. pp. 49-68. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT press.

Lavie, N. & Robertson I. (2001). The role of perceptual load in visual neglect: Rejection of ipsilesional distractors is facilitated with higher central load.Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13 (7), 867-876.

Beck , D. M. Rees, G. Frith, C. D. & Lavie, N. (2001). Neural correlates of change awareness and change blindness. Nature Neuroscience 4 (6) 645-650.

De Fockert J. W., Rees, G., Frith, C. D. & Lavie, N. (2001). The role of working memory in visual selective attention. Science, 291 (5509), 1803-1806.

Rees, G., Frith, C. D. & Lavie, N. (2001). Processing of irrelevant visual motion during performance of an auditory task. Neuropsychologia 39 (9) 937-949.

Rees, G. & Lavie, N. (2001). What can functional imaging reveal about the role of attention in visual awareness? Neuropsychologia, 39, 1343-1353.

Ro, T. Russell, C. & Lavie, N. (2001). Changing faces: a detection advantage in the flicker paradigm. Psychological Science, 12, 94-99.


Lavie, N. (2000). Selective attention and cognitive control: dissociating attentional functions through different types of load. In S. Monsell & J. Driver (Eds.). Attention and performance XVIII, pp. 175-194. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT press.Look inside

Lavie, N. & Fox, E. (2000). The role of perceptual load in negative priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26, 1038-1052.


Yardley, L., Gardner, M., Lavie N. & Gresty, M. (1999) Attentional demands of perception of passive self-motion in darkness. Neuropsychologia, 37,1293-1301.

Yardley, L. Gardner, M. Leadbetter, A. & Lavie, N. (1999). Effect of articulatory and mental tasks on postural control. Neuroreport,10, 215-219.


Maylor, E. & Lavie N. (1998). The influence of perceptual load on age differences in selective attention. Psychology and Aging, 13, 563-573.

Rees, G., Frith, C., & Lavie, N. (1997). Modulating irrelevant motion perception by varying attentional load in an unrelated task. Science, 278 (5343),1616-1619.

Lavie, N. & Cox, S. (1997). On the efficiency of attentional selection: Efficient visual search results in inefficient rejection of distraction. Psychological Science, 8, 395-398.

Solomon, J.A., Lavie, N. & Morgan, M.J. (1997). The contrast discrimination function: spatial cuing effects. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 14, 2443-2448.

Lavie, N. (1997). Feature integration and selective attention: Response competition from unattended distractor features. Perception & Psychophysics, 59, 543-556.


Lavie, N. & Driver J. (1996). On the spatial extent of attention in object-based visual selection. Perception & Psychophysics, 58, 1238-1251.

Lavie, N. (1995). Perceptual load as a necessary condition for selective attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21, 451-468.

Lavie, N. & Tsal, Y. (1994). Perceptual load as a major determinant of the locus of selection in visual attention. Perception & Psychophysics, 56, 183-197.

Tsal,Y., Meiran, N., & Lavie, N. (1994) The role of attention in Illusory conjunctions. Perception & Psychophysics, 55, 350-358.

Tsal, Y. & Lavie, N. (1993). Location dominance in attending to color and shape. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19, 131-139.

Tsal, Y. & Lavie, N. (1990). The dominance of stimulus location in processing visual information: Extending the spotlight theory. In K. Benyaminy, A. Dolev, M. Amir, A. Cohen, & Y. M. Shlesinger (Eds.) Theory and Application in Psychology: Volume in memory of Israel Lieblich. Jerusalem: Magnes. (Hebrew)

Tsal, Y. & Lavie, N. (1988). Attending to color and shape: The special role of location in selective visual processing. Perception & Psychophysics, 44,15-21.